When I first started writing about the output of the
ls command, I didn’t
expect it would take four posts to get through, but here we are. We’re almost
to the end, the only things left to talk about are the file size, the last
modified time, and the filename.
The file size is represented in bytes, unless you pass the
-h flag to
which case, the size will be displayed in Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte,
Terabyte, Petabyte, and Exabyte, depending on how much stuff you have!
$ cd Downloads $ ls -lrth -rw-r--r-- 1 gabe gabe 3.1G Sep 18 2014 loebolus-data-master.zip -rw-r--r-- 1 gabe gabe 200K Sep 20 2014 bootstrap-3.2.0-dist.zip -rw-r----- 1 gabe gabe 3.1M Sep 21 2014 phpunit.phar -rw-r----- 1 gabe gabe 153B Sep 21 2014 submit.php
Here we see (G)igabytes, (K)ilobytes, (M)egabytes, and (B)ytes respectively.
We can also see that these files were last modified in September of 2014. If I
were to make a change to any of those files, or use the
touch command to
update their modified time to now, that would be reflected in the output of
$ touch phpunit.phar $ ls -lrth -rw-r--r-- 1 gabe gabe 3.1G Sep 18 2014 loebolus-data-master.zip -rw-r--r-- 1 gabe gabe 200K Sep 20 2014 bootstrap-3.2.0-dist.zip -rw-r----- 1 gabe gabe 153B Sep 21 2014 submit.php -rw-r----- 1 gabe gabe 3.1M Feb 13 22:12 phpunit.phar
Finally, we have the name of the file that we’re looking at. Hopefully that one is self-explanatory!
That concludes the long tour of the
ls command. Next time I’ll be sharing
some tips and tricks for using your shell more efficiently.
- list the contents of the directory in (l)ong format, ®everse order, sorted
by (t)ime, with sizes in (h)uman readable format. This is probably my most
frequently used format of the
lscommand, as it shows me the most recently changed files at the bottom of the screen.
- a one or a zero
- 8 Bits
- 1024 Bytes
- 1024 Kilobytes
- 1024 Megabytes
- 1024 Gigabytes
- 1024 Terabytes
- 1024 Petabytes
There are multiple notations for Kilobytes etc, which you can read more about here.